Intelligent Labeling Based on Fisher Information for Medical Image Segmentation Using Deep Learning


Jamshid Sourati, Ali Gholipour, Jennifer G Dy, Xavier Tomas-Fernandez, Sila Kurugol, and Simon K Warfield. 2019. “Intelligent Labeling Based on Fisher Information for Medical Image Segmentation Using Deep Learning.” IEEE Trans Med Imaging, 38, 11, Pp. 2642-2653.


Deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) have recently achieved superior performance at the task of medical image segmentation compared to classic models. However, training a generalizable CNN requires a large amount of training data, which is difficult, expensive, and time-consuming to obtain in medical settings. Active Learning (AL) algorithms can facilitate training CNN models by proposing a small number of the most informative data samples to be annotated to achieve a rapid increase in performance. We proposed a new active learning method based on Fisher information (FI) for CNNs for the first time. Using efficient backpropagation methods for computing gradients together with a novel low-dimensional approximation of FI enabled us to compute FI for CNNs with a large number of parameters. We evaluated the proposed method for brain extraction with a patch-wise segmentation CNN model in two different learning scenarios: universal active learning and active semi-automatic segmentation. In both scenarios, an initial model was obtained using labeled training subjects of a source data set and the goal was to annotate a small subset of new samples to build a model that performs well on the target subject(s). The target data sets included images that differed from the source data by either age group (e.g. newborns with different image contrast) or underlying pathology that was not available in the source data. In comparison to several recently proposed AL methods and brain extraction baselines, the results showed that FI-based AL outperformed the competing methods in improving the performance of the model after labeling a very small portion of target data set (<0.25%).